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50 First, Ocean Affairs of the State Oceanic Administration: Endangered Battles Sea Desalination
Fifty years ago, the State Oceanic Administration, the first nationwide ocean authority in new China, was set up in Beijing and the development of China's maritime industry has since entered a completely new era. A group of passionate pioneers came together from all directions and opened a brilliant chapter in the arduous pioneering and pioneering spirit of the new China's maritime cause.
In the past 50 years, the pace of revitalizing the sea by science and technology has never stopped. The arduous efforts made by several generations of marine scientists have yielded tremendous achievements. From the great development of marine resources to the transformation and transformation of the traditional marine industries, and then to the emerging marine industries The rise of marine science and technology has extended to every corner of the marine economy and opened a treasure trove of blue resources for the sustainable development of our economy.
In 1967, led by the State Oceanic Administration, a nationwide battle for seawater desalination started at the same time in Qingdao, Beijing and Shanghai. The multi-system and multi-disciplinary scientific and technological personnel across the country successfully overcame the impact of the civil strife and material shortage in the "Cultural Revolution" over two years and succeeded in producing a 1 tonne / day prototype of plate-type reverse osmosis desalination desalination for the future development of desalination technology Accumulated experience.
Ordered the development of desalination equipment
In 1966, an exhilaration of the marine science and technology circles spread to the State Oceanic Administration: the State Science and Technology Commission decided to engage in a desalination battle across the country! Battle mission is to use 3 years or so, to make a small prototype of reverse osmosis desalination. The goal of the battle is very simple, is to get fresh water directly from the sea.
State Science and Technology Commission to this task to the State Oceanic Administration. Soon, the State Oceanic Administration organized a national conference on desalination battle, to determine the various tasks of the battle.
"High from 堦, where you decided to tune you to participate in the national desalination battle." Received the notice, is working in the First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration Gao Cong 堦 that a desalination of the spring of the sea will come It! However, he was not happy, because just then, mentor Min Xueyi was persecuted to death.
In Shandong Ocean University Department of Marine Chemistry, the earliest reverse osmosis membrane research in some people, Min Xueyi played a key role. To be honest, if not affected by the Min Xueyi, Gao Congli whether seawater desalination will be selected as the research direction, even his own can not tell. But anyway, Takahashi and others came this opportunity.
Prototype developed successfully
According to the conference decision, the battle will be conducted in three places simultaneously: Qingdao, Beijing and Shanghai. Qingdao and Beijing mainly carry out reverse osmosis research, Shanghai, mainly to overcome the electrodialysis technology.
In more than two years of battle, Takakashiro and his colleagues participated in the research and development of reverse osmosis membranes. Work 12 hours a day, except for five days a week reorganization education and study, the rest of the time used in the study.
Through the preparation of the membrane, the test of the equipment performance, etc., Gao Congli and the researchers from all over the country grew up rapidly and became the main force in the battle. Because it is necessary to work with researchers from Beijing on the research of reverse osmosis membranes, Gao Congli often rushes to and from Qingdao to Beijing on the train.
Reverse osmosis membrane, in the end what to do? Lack of experience of high school, repeated trials with colleagues. Some are based on the assumption that the reverse osmosis membrane made of film-like, made of tubular, and made of thinner vacuum fibers.
In the era of revolution, lack of resources and supply, how easy is it to complete the tasks and goals of the battle? Reverse osmosis membrane designed easy, but made difficult, because the material is not easy to find. In order to find a suitable high-pressure pump, they traveled all over the country and were finally found at a small pump plant in Shanghai. Sometimes, really can not find the material, they design and process on their own.
In early 1969, a reverse osmosis desalination plant that produced 1 ton of freshwater per day was successfully developed and commissioned on an island in Qingdao for six months.
Under the guidance of Professor Zhu Xiuchang and navy expert Shi Song of the Beijing Institute of Chemistry under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, through more than two years of hard work, in December 1969, Gao Congli finally achieved the goal of the battle plan. Completed the task.
March 5, 1970, Gao Cong 堦 with simple luggage, all the way from the north of Qingdao, Qingdao, Hangzhou. As a major achievement of this battle, all the personnel involved in the battle in the State Oceanic Administration system were grouped together to form a system. At the No.2 Institute of Oceanography of the State Oceanic Administration, a desalination laboratory set up for them, Countries and people expect desalination business. Since then, in the West Lake District, 36, Paul Pei Road, waiting for them from Gao is a brand new start.
Witnesses said (Yang Wenhe, the former deputy director of the State Oceanic Administration, former director of the China Ocean Society)
After the desalination battle, electrodialysis technology is faster. At that time, not only seawater desalination, I remember that this technology also applied to the desalination of brackish water, sewage purification and beer industry, groundwater desalination and other fields.
In desalination, the main use of reverse osmosis. 60s of last century, the reverse osmosis law, we are just getting started. Later, we began a round-plate, desalination device of FRP, Nissan's freshwater 3 tons. I remember when I was still the Second Marine Institute of the State Oceanic Administration, this device, nuclear submarines have also been used. Later developed into a roll of desalination device.
After the desalination battle, these people who participated in the battle of the State Oceanic Administration reached two, and set up a special desalination laboratory. Later, when I was chief of two, I urged the desalination room to be independent and set up a desalination center, which was later the Hangzhou Water Treatment Technology Research and Development Center, which focused on membrane desalination technology.
In 1958, the Navy and the Beijing Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences conducted a study of electrodialysis technology, opened the way of desalination technology in China.
The national desalination battle from 1967 to 1969 laid the foundation for desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and distillation.
In 1984, the State Oceanic Administration established the "Research Institute of Desalination and Comprehensive Utilization" in Tianjin, specializing in the research and development of "desalination process of distillation method".
Desalination was originally used more on board, or on the island's domestic water. In the 80s of last century, began to be widely used. In 1987, an electrodialysis desalination plant with a daily output of 200 tons of fresh water was installed in our country's Xisha Islands.
In 2005, the "National Seawater Utilization Plan" was released, which provided a good policy environment for seawater utilization.
In 2012, the State Council issued the Opinions on Accelerating the Development of Desalination Industry and the Twelfth Five-Year Plan for the Development of Desalination Industry, all of which referred to the development goal of desalination.
After more than 50 years of development of seawater utilization in our country, the technology is basically mature. Now we have fully mastered the two mainstream desalination technologies of distillation and reverse osmosis.